I recently read this article, but is quite unclear on how it got those equations and used them to find the amount of energy (J) an area receives from sunlight over a period of time (s). Does anyone have information or ways to calculate this?

The article shows this equation of calculating it:

$$mJ = (mW/cm^2) \cdot (Area/cm^2) \cdot (Time/s)$$

and subsequent other equations, which have no sources, so I am quite unsure if this is reliable.

$$\theta = 23.5° \sin (2{\partial T/365.25})$$

Solar constant for the day:

$$\sigma D = (137mW/cm^2) \cos (L - \theta)$$

  • $\begingroup$ Please edit the question to limit it to a specific problem with enough detail to identify an adequate answer. $\endgroup$
    – Community Bot
    Jun 21, 2022 at 6:46
  • $\begingroup$ Please avoid links that could break in the future, making this question useless. Take the time to write your question as self-contained as possible (and keeping the link, as a reference). $\endgroup$
    – Miyase
    Jun 21, 2022 at 6:47
  • $\begingroup$ @Miyase I just want to know how to calculate the amount of energy an area receives over a period of time from the sunlight $\endgroup$
    – DialFrost
    Jun 21, 2022 at 7:14
  • $\begingroup$ You mention equations in the question, perhaps you could show them here to support and clarify your question. $\endgroup$
    – Miyase
    Jun 21, 2022 at 7:23
  • $\begingroup$ I have tried my best, but I am mainly unsure about how they got the equations and if it is even correct in the first place @Miyase $\endgroup$
    – DialFrost
    Jun 21, 2022 at 7:47


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