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What is meant by conditional measurement? In many research papers, it is written that "we condition the detector on the one of the output ports of the beam splitter to detect 'm' number of photons". I have difficulty understanding that how can we be sure to get this particular outcome and what is the process of conditioning? How do we know that we are going to get this outcome? Do we first make sure that we get our required outcome on the output port?

Here are links to some papers if someone wants to read further:

'''http://www.ktf.upol.cz/tom/clanky/pra97-cat.pdf'''

'''https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s100530050177.pdf'''

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Do we first make sure that we get our required outcome on the output port?

Precisely.

You only consider the outcome of experimental runs where you got the desired outcome onto which you condition.

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