The “Standard Model” of particle physics recognizes four fundamental interactions, and describes how different fields participate in them.
The theory of fields is called “quantum” because fields can only exchange energy, momentum, or angular momentum with each other in lumps. In particular, angular momentum can only be exchanged in lumps with size $\hbar$.
It is sometimes convenient to refer to such a lump as a “particle.”
Fields whose associated angular momentum is an integer multiple of $\hbar$ can be thought of as “force carriers”. Fields whose associated angular momentum is $\hbar/2$ can be thought of as “matter particles.” Each field also has an associated electric charge.
The phrase “intrinsic angular momentum” or “associated angular momentum” has too many syllables for a normal person to say, so we call it “spin,” even though that conjures up an unphysical picture of a spinning ball.
The interactions and their participants are:
Gravity, the weakest, felt by all forms of mass-energy. Our successful theory of gravity is a curved space-time background against which the other fields develop. If there is a particle associated with gravity, the symmetries involve suggest such a “graviton” would have spin $2\hbar$.
The “weak nuclear interaction,” which has three associated charge states. The “charged current” is mediated by the $W^\pm$, and connects particles in the six “flavor doublets” of the Standard Model, such as $u\to Wd$ or $e\to W\nu$.
The $W$ has unit spin and unit charge, so the flavor doublets must have spin $\hbar/2$ and a charge difference of one unit.
All of the twelve known matter particles also interact with the “neutral current,” mediated by the $Z$. Search my posting history for “weak charge” for comments on the neutral current.
The “electromagnetic interaction,” mediated by the photon.
The electric charge is said to have $U(1)$ symmetry, which vaguely means it can be positive, negative, or zero.
Neutrinos do not participate in electromagnetism, because they have zero electric charge.
The “strong nuclear interaction,” mediated by gluons. The associated “color charge” is said to have $SU(3)$ symmetry, which means it can be positive, negative, or zero in three different ”directions,” commonly labeled “red-antired” and two other color-anticolors. The charged leptons, including the electron, do not participate in the strong interaction, because they have zero color charge.
(The Higgs field mediates a sort of self-interaction, so I leave it out of this list.)
Because the color interaction is strong, quarks are always found as “color singlets.” Such an agglomeration can consist of a quark-antiquark pair, or of three matter quarks whose same-sign colors combine to zero. A quark-antiquark pair is a “meson,” and a three-quark system is a “baryon.”
So in broad strokes, the difference between an electron and a quark is that electrons are “color singlets” all by themselves, and ignore an interaction in which the quarks participate.