In a very general sense, all this measurement techniques are basically interferometry where you have two signals: one from a phase/frequency reference source and the other is the reflected wave that is (semi-)coherent* with the reference.
Because of their coherency these can be added and their interference be detected by an amplitude sensor. To measure distance one measures phase difference between these two signals, reference and echo. This is a very accurate method over a radial distance of one wavelength, the problem is the inherent $2\pi$ ambiguity of the phase measurement because the result is essentially independent of a range variation that is an integer multiple of the wavelength.
To resolve this inherent ambiguity one applies several wavelengths and either simultaneously (more difficult) or consecutively (much easier) one sends multiple frequency tones and measure their phase shits relative to their reference reference. The most common method is the linear chirp signal whose instantaneous frequency is a relatively slow linear function of time compared to the carrier frequency oscillation but there can be other modulation schemes as well.
*semi-coherent meaning that relative to the reference your echo signal partially decoheres because of noise, Doppler shift, multiple reflections, absorptions, etc.; all these will have to be compensated for in the signal processor.