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I was wondering something for awhile without finding what I was looking for :

let's consider a flow, for instance inside a pipe, with a Reynolds number $Re$ below a critical Reynolds number $Re_{cr}$ corresponding to the value below which the main flow remains laminar. Is it possible to force the main flow to swtich to a turbulent regime without changing its velocity, but with some kind of artefacts like vortex generators, or ramps, and so on ?

I am not talking about the transition of the boundary layer from laminar to turbulent. I know that there are many kinds of means to acheive the transition. Plus, usually, when we talk about the laminar/turbulent transition of a boundary layer, the main flow is already turbulent. I am talking about a laminar main flow in a pipe, and we try to make it turbulent by other means than increasing upstream velocity.

Thank you

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This is an interesting question. It has been shown that adding a polymer solution to a low-Reynolds number flow induces a regime known as 'elastic turbulence', that is, it has turbulent characteristics even if the flow without the polymer solution would be laminar at that Reynolds number.

You can check the papers by Groisman and Steinberg: 'Elastic turbulence in a polymer solution flow' and 'Elastic turbulence in curvilinear flows of polymer solutions'.

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