If we take an iron disc in space that is spinning on its axis, no electron in sight for miles other than the disc. The disc is magnetized with 2 poles. Speaking from an electrical potential, yes the dipoles are all lined up in one direction in the disc but the potential difference from one side to the other I think is fair to say is completely negligible. The magnetic field travels out into infinity at the speed of light and any change that happens to it also travels out. If the sun suddenly disappeared I think we can all agree that the earth continues to orbit around the location for another 8 minutes or so. In the same way the magnetic field extends out. What we are really looking at is the changing magnetic field from this disc as it radiates outwards. Ok let's up the receiving side, a ferrite core with a coil around it, just like an AM radio. Will it be able to pick up "the signal" and is this signal an electromagnetic wave, and if yes, is there a varying electric field that exists between the receiving antenna and spinning magnet, and if yes, where does this come from?
Will it be able to pick up "the signal"
Yes (under ideal conditions, at least; obviously this isn't a practical experiment; a magnet spinning at a practical speed would be a very weak radiator, the wavelength would be very long, the far field region would be very far away, etc.).
and is this signal an electromagnetic wave
and if yes, is there a varying electric field that exists between the receiving antenna and spinning magnet
and if yes, where does this come from?
From the self-interaction of the electric and magnetic components of the electromagnetic field. Any spatial variation in the electric component causes a change in the magnetic component, and any spatial variation in the magnetic component causes a change in the electric component. In the equilibrium (that is, when we're far enough away from any phenomena that disturb one component or the other), this settles down to a propagating EM wave with the two components in phase and the ratio between them being 377 ohms.
Feeling smart, might delete this later, idk.
We don't know "how."
We do have a model that we use to try to describe and predict interactions like the one you describe. EM waves or particles will indeed travel to your described receiver for detection... or more accurately, that's what happens in our model.
This is an incredibly unsatisfying answer, sorry. :-(
BTW, you should consider spending some quality time over at the Physics SE to see if this Q has been A'd over there, and ask it yourself if not!