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Are half of the electrons within a domain pointing in the opposite direction as the other half? (Separated, obviously, by a bit of a gap, otherwise they would cancel each other out...)

If all of the Ising spins in a ferromagnet are aligned, where is the north pole? Is it aligned directly with the spins, antiparallel, or perpendicular?

Lastly, are only valence electrons involved in magnetic domains, as in chemical bonds?

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They are only opposite in an anti-ferromagnetic material, so no.

I think all your questions stem from a misunderstanding of magnetic dipole. Every single individual electron has a magnetic field with both a North and South pole.

And yes, only valence electrons are involved, since filled shells have even numbers of electrons all with equal numbers pointing in opposite directions. Thus they cannot contribute to a magnetic domain.

I would suggest watching this video https://youtu.be/hFAOXdXZ5TM

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