I studied in my Physics class that frictional force arises due to formation of bonds between the two surfaces in contact. But what exactly are these bonds? Are these electrostatic bonds formed due to the electrostatic forces of attraction between the protons and the electrons of the two surfaces? Or are these some other kind of bonds? Can someone please answer what are these bonds and how are these bonds formed?

  • $\begingroup$ Keep in mind that it's not purely bonds that can cause what we view as friction. Very rough surfaces can impede horizontal motion (think sawtooth patterns having to rise and fall) or even end up being destroyed, aka "smoothed" under lateral forces $\endgroup$ Jun 15, 2021 at 15:24
  • $\begingroup$ @Carl Witthoft : Thus, "wear". $\endgroup$ Jun 15, 2021 at 17:46


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