I am so confused about the interaction between the photon and the atoms especially when we see it and perceive the color. I think there are many questions like this before but I still don't understand its answer since I can't picture what happened in the atom when we see things.
As it is mentioned that the atom is almost empty so the photon should pass through it easily but things are opaque and I want to understand why.
There are some explain that when photon has exact energy to excite an electron in the atom to jump into the higher state then electron absorbed it and no light in that frequency passes through the atom.
The exact value means greater than or equal so that the electron can be excited into the higher level? If not why the greater energy cannot excite the electron and just let the excess energy go somewhere?
The above statement still is unclear to me because the atom filled with space so why photon can interact with the electron? The probability for them to meet should not be high? Or is it because of the cloud atomic model that they somehow can have a high probability to interact with each other?
If it is the case that electron is excited into the higher state, assume that the object appears blue, then all except blue wavelength photon will be absorbed each by corresponding electrons? Does it mean that many electrons get excited and jump into the higher state (corresponding to their exact energy photon that they absorbed)?
Why doesn't electron jump back to its original state? Because if it jumps back to its original state it should emit energy the same amount it absorbed, which then can be combined with all other electrons to be appeared almost white(except blue)?
If 3. is the case then the atom that electrons jump to the lower positions (but higher than its original) will have to be excited (next time) by the photon with higher energy than before (since it's in the higher state than original) and hence we should see the object with the different color than before?
I think maybe this fails at the very first question so someone please explain the interaction step by step for this (color perception) phenomena?