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When we talk about the electronic configuration of boron , sulphur , nitrogen.

What I got to learn new was about their hybridisation. For example , boron has electronic configuration as $1s^2 2s^2 2p^1$.now , there is one pared electron at 2s^2 and one unpaired electron at 2p1.

Now , during a reaction of boron with an element. It can make one of the paired electron shift to 2p1 orbital and thus form 3 unpaired electrons.

I want to know what forces the orbitals to make this happen.

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This is called Atomic excitation and there can be multiple sources of energy that can lead to this effect, f.e. atom can absorp energy of an photon which will then lead to excitation (but any energy source can lead into it). You can also take a look on wikipedia Excited state. Hope this helps.

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  • $\begingroup$ Does it have any link with hybridisation ? $\endgroup$ – Rider Apr 12 at 12:28
  • $\begingroup$ Yes, when atoms are in excited state, they will more likely hybridize (because of their different energy states), there was actually and post on chemistry stackexchange , on Why do we excite electrons before hybridisation?. $\endgroup$ – marejak023 Apr 12 at 12:36
  • $\begingroup$ So , for like carbon. In its second excited state , it forms 4 unpaired electron. But why does it go to second excited state ? Where does it get the photon from. For example , take CO2 $\endgroup$ – Rider Apr 12 at 12:44

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