In the context of the Peccei-Quinn Symmetry in solving the Strong CP problem, it is said that the Axion develops a mass due to QCD instanton effects below $\Lambda_{QCD}$, which is very much temperature-dependent.

I didn't understand what is the instanton effect and how does it give mass to the Axion.

  • $\begingroup$ What is meant is that non-perturbatively $(\tilde G G) ^\#\neq 0$. Take a look at that: inspirehep.net/literature/142732 $\endgroup$ – nwolijin Mar 2 at 9:40
  • $\begingroup$ Perhaps you can add the reference where that was stated, so that the community has a lead to follow. I have heard similar statements in relation to the eta prime particle for example, where such phenomena is explained in the literature. But I am also interested in the axion case... $\endgroup$ – ohneVal Mar 3 at 10:38

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