(Quoted largely from Wikipedia): Askaryan radiation, known otherwise as the Askaryan effect, is a phenomenon which occurs when a particle traveling faster than the phase velocity of light in a dense dielectric produces a shower of secondary charged particles which contain a charge anisotropy, and thus emits a cone of coherent radiation in the radio part of the electromagnetic spectrum.
As I understand it, on a very high level, the Askaryan effect is similar in nature to the Cherenkov effect (whereby charged particles moving with velocity $>> c$ in the vacuum emit radiation), producing radiation by "twanging" atoms, pushing electrons into higher energy states which, of course, subsequently return, "emitting" photons (I could well be wrong, however).
Unfortunately, much (all?) of the information out there on this is buried deep within research papers, and is rather inaccessible.
My question is, what is the mechanism of the Askaryan effect? How does a particle go from traveling through "space", to encountering some matter, to producing coherent radiation, on a low level? What, specifically is meant by charge anisotropy here (I could define it, however I'm not sure what it looks like here), and how is it relevant? That is, I'm looking for a more detailed understanding of what exactly is going on here, including the math where important.