and where can I find the data about the locations of the solar system planets during their entire year? I would like to find the data on the orbits of solar system plantes. Also I would like to know how can one express the location of each planet in their orbits? Can one for example use cartesian coordinates with center of the sun as the origin? or whta is the way scientists (astronomers, cosmologist, or astrophysicists) express the location of each of them?
Ephemeris or its plural ephemerides is the trajectory and position information and dynamics for planets, moons, satellites or other orbital bodies. A good place to find this info is at JPL Horizons at; https://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/horizons.cgi Hope this helps.