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I am curious about the photoelectric effect and can not explain myself a couple phenomena. When a photon hits an electron and thereby knocks it out of the atom into the 'void', what happens to the metal atom? Should the metal not theoretically change its structure because it is lacking an electron and therefore become another element? And how come an electron can be knocked off into the void, if the void does not even conduct electrons?

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Should the metal not theoretically change its structure because it is lacking an electron and therefore become another element?

An element is determined by the number of protons in the nucleus, not the number of electrons. So a metal atom losing electrons will not change what the element is.

And how come an electron can be knocked off into the void, if the void does not even conduct electrons?

I am not sure what you mean by "the void"; the photoelectric effect can be observed perfectly well on the surface of the Earth where there is atmosphere. And electron is ejected because it gains so much energy that it "escapes" the metal. The process just depends on the electron getting energy, not "the void" somehow conducting electrons.

When a photon hits an electron and thereby knocks it out of the atom into the 'void', what happens to the metal atom?

It should be noted that in many metals there is a "conduction band", so valence electrons are shared across many atoms across the metal. This is why many metals are such good conductors. So if electrons fly off it's just a metal with fewer electrons than it had before. The atoms themselves will not undergo any drastic changes though.

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