this is a super-basic question but I am new to all this and a bit confused. I want to understand the process of radiation and other things like evaporation on the temperature of the Earth's surface. So to start, I want to truly understand what happens with the molecules in the ground.
But I am struggling already with the understanding of the incoming energy:
- If we look at the top of Earth's atmosphere, radiation arrives in various wavelengths .
- Not all of this radiation reaches the ground, but is absorbed by different gases in the atmosphere, so only parts of the radiation reaching the TOA finally reaches the surface . Yep, makes sense.
- To calculate what happens on the ground, I now need to know what the total incoming radiation is, LW and SW. But Wikipedia  calls the solar radiation "shortwave" and relates longwave radiation solely to the outgoing radiation. Why?
- Once I understood how much LW and SW finally reaches the earth, the SW should have a higher effect in increasing the kinetic energy of the molecules in the ground, as SW radiation has a higher energy, right?
So now I am confused. I actually wanted to know how strong SW and LW radiation put the molecules in the ground in motion to understand the increase in temperature and thus via the Stephan-Boltzmann-Law compute again the outgoing radiation... But what is more important now, SW or LW? And why does Wikipedia call solar radiation only shortwave?
If someone could help me out here that would be so great.
Thank you all so much for helping this mathematician fail at learning something about physics haha.
EDIT: I misread source  so one of my questions have been answered already so I removed that.