Let's say a 10N cube (in air, on Earth) rests flat on a scale at the bottom of a tank of water, and the scale reads 8N, so there is 2N of buoyant force on the cube. How does the buoyant force manifest itself on the cube? I assume the force is normal to the surface of the scale, but if there isn't any water under the cube, how does the water push up on the cube?
If the system is constructed in such a way that no water can get under the cube, then there will not be a buoyant force on the cube. The net force on the cube will result from the pressure of the water pushing down on its upper surface, and this force will point downward on the cube.
One way to understand this on an intuitive level is to think of suction cups. Suction cups work precisely because there is a partial vacuum on one side of the cup and atmospheric pressure on the other side holding them down.
This interesting problem, the so-called "bottom case", was discussed and solved by me in the last section of the paper mentioned above by Adamenko (Eur.J.Phys.). That theoretical result has been confirmed experimentally in a more recent work, namely
See the references therein for other independent experiments revealing the same "downward" buoyant force!
Prof. Fabio M. S. Lima
Institute of Physics, University of Brasilia