I have a question that bothers me for quite some time:

Can cosmology be done without introducing a metric explicitly, and in a manifestly diffeomorphism-invariant way? Assuming that we are in the framework of classical general relativity (no modifications/extensions).

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    $\begingroup$ If this were possible, the modern cosmology would not be as wrong as it is. $\endgroup$
    – safesphere
    Dec 8, 2020 at 15:12
  • $\begingroup$ But are there any attempts? $\endgroup$ Dec 9, 2020 at 16:02
  • $\begingroup$ In the Shuttercock model semanticscholar.org/paper/… the metric emerges from the wave function of the universe. I talk about this model here physics.stackexchange.com/questions/564761/… but not at the depth you are looking for. $\endgroup$
    – safesphere
    Dec 9, 2020 at 17:21
  • $\begingroup$ @safesphere thanks for the paper! $\endgroup$ Dec 15, 2020 at 11:29


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