It is referred to as Coriolis effect when there is velocity towards or away from the axis of rotation.
(However, in many cases a generalized concept is used, this generalized concept also looks at the effect of velocity in tangential direction. I will get to that at the end of this answer.)
On the rotating wheel space station:
Water flowing out of a tap will not be seen to fall straight down towards the sink. Instead the water will be seen to lag behind. The amount of lagging behind is not correlated with the distance to the central axis of rotation, so you cannot infer your distance to the central axis from observing the amount of lagging behind.
However, the case of water in motion is not what you are asking about.
You are asking about water that is stationary in a pool on the floor.
I'm referring to that pool of water as stationary because that pool of water is co-rotating with the space station. For a pool of water on the floor there is nothing to make it move with respect to the floor.
Compare the Earth.
The water on the Earth is co-rotating with the Earth. As seen from the south pole the Earth is rotating clockwise, and the water on the Earth isn't lagging behind.
About a generalized concept of Coriolis force.
Imagine a pool of water on that rotating wheel space station, large enough for a toy boat, the toy boat is motorized. Let the boat be cruising in a direction so that it is moving faster than the space station. Then the boat is circumnavigating the central axis faster than the space station itself. Faster circular motion requires a larger centripetal force. So: when the boat is circumnavigating the central axis faster than the space station itself the boat will be a bit deeper in the water, so that the buoyancy force is larger. Conversely, if the boat is cruising in the opposite direction then it is circumnavigating the central axis slower than the space station. By cruising fast enough the boat can completely negate the angular velocity of the space station. The water of the pool will then lift the boat completely out of the water. When the boat is no longer circumnavigating the central axis then there is no longer a requirement for a centripetal force.