There are a lot of questions and answers on this site about the unification of forces, and all of them univocally say that at high energy levels, all the forces get unified. But none of them answer my question specifically, that is, what is the mechanism that causes forces to unify at high energy levels.
The idea is that at extremely high temperatures and energies, like at the beginning of the universe, all the forces were one, but as the the temperatures decreased, the forces seperated into the main four forces.
I found one answer where knzhou specifically goes into some details:
When we say all the forces were unified, we mean that all of the Standard Model forces were described by a common set of charges, which are intermixed by 24 gauge bosons. These gauge bosons are all identical in the same way that the 8 gluons are identical. In particular, you can't point at some subset of the 24 and say "these are the gluons", or "this one is the photon". They were all completely interchangeable.
But this does not explain the mechanism how higher energy levels cause the bosons to become identical (interchangeable). Basically here the explanation is just that at high energy levels, the bosons become identical. This could mean that the bosons set of quantum state's become identical, that is, all of them become massless (I assume), their spins becomes the same (though it does not say what spin), and all the other quantum numbers too.
My question could be the description of the mechanism that leads to this quantum state, and how high energy levels cause the bosons quantum numbers to become identical.
And the fact that the bosons are identical, does not explain for example what that unified force is like, is it attractive, or repulsive too (I guess that comes from the spin)?
- What is the mechanism that causes forces to get unified at high energies?