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What I have learnt in school is that, we are able to see images behind a mirror(virtual image) because our brain assumes that the diverging rays that our eyes see, are coming from a point behind the mirror but in reality, there is no such point. So, my question is if there is no such point, how can a camera capture it?

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I think you are confused due to the terminology 'virtual' here. 'Virtual image' here does not mean there is no image, it simply implies that the image is not where it appears to be. If you are looking through a transparent material, you also see an image but this time, the object is actually at the place from where the light appears to come and hit your eyes. In a mirror, you see yourself looking back at yourself. It appears that you are on the opposite side of the mirror from where you actually are. It is in this sense, we call the image in a mirror a virtual one. But the photons (light particles) hitting your eyes are totally real, and it's these photons that go on to form a picture when they hit the sensors of a camera. Thus, all images may form picture via camera as they are made of real photons.

So I suggest you to try to look past the word 'virtual' and understand, what the word 'virtual' actually stands for here.

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A camera doesn't "know" if a source image is real or virtual. As long as the rays from each point in the source image are not converging, and aren't diverging from a point too close to the camera lens, the camera can form a real image on the film or sensor array.

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What I have learnt in school is that, we are able to see images behind a mirror(virtual image) because our brain assumes that the diverging rays that our eyes see, are coming from a point behind the mirror

Not necessarily. Images are images independent of what the brain is doing. It's not like our brain has some mechanism to first determine if an image is real or virtual and then interprets the light differently because of it. Either way it's just our eyes detecting light.

Cameras can see virtual images for the same reason we can: the light coming from each point on the object is smoothly mapped to a unique point of the real image produced by the eye/camera lens.

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