# Why are some solitons formed from bosonic fields fermionic?

Some topological solitons formed from bosonic fields have fermionic statistics. Why?

A short answer: The soliton in bosonic field theory can be fermionic because the model secretly contains massive fermions at high energies.

This is because in order to define an bosonic field theory, we need to non-perturbatively regulate the field theory. So let us put the bosonic field theory on a lattice to non-perturbatively regulate the theory (otherwise, the field theory is not even well defined at non-perturbative level). The claim is that to produce the needed topological term that makes the soliton an fermion, the lattice model must contain fermions with finite energy gap.

A more precise claim: Any gapped bosonic model on lattice that have unique ground state on closed space of any topology do not contain fermionic quasiparticles.

Basically, "gapped bosonic model on lattice that have unique ground state on closed space" implies that the model has no topological order. The only way to have emergent fermion from a bosonic lattice model is to have a non-trivial topological order. Also see a related discussion, where I claim that, in lattice bosonic model, the emergent fermion must appear together with emergent gauge theory at low energies. Skyrme-model contain no low energy gauge theory. This is why I claim that the Skyrme-model secretly contains massive fermions at high energies.

There are many examples. Moshe focused on lower-dimensional theories; for example, in 1+1 dimensions, bosonic and fermionic conformal field theories are typically totally equivalent to each other (and one may get fermions as kinks of the bosons, and bosons as bilinear currents of the fermions). I will focus on higher-dimensional theories.

I don't really know how to get fermions in the $D=26$ bosonic string theory. But in other, $D=10$ string theories that normally contain bosons only, fermions may be obtained - see e.g. this paper by Justin David, Shiraz Minwalla, and Carlos Nunez (whose writing I remember pretty well, back from Santa Barbara 2001 etc.)

http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-th/0107165

The basic trick, known already in 3+1-dimensional bosonic gauge theory (by Jackiw-Rebbi-Hasenfratz-’t Hooft), is "spin from isospin".