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Resistance is explained by collision of electrons with ions. In the same way could someone please explain how a battery allows electrons to flow through the circuit. I think of it as the repulsion by the negative terminal. The electrons flowing cause the constant speed. I would appreciate an answer.

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The collisions experienced by electrons in the circuit resistance makes them lose kinetic energy. In order to replenish that energy so that the electrons can keep moving (i.e., to maintain the current), an external energy source is needed. The battery is that source.

The battery converts chemical potential energy into electrical potential energy. The potential difference across the battery terminals establishes an electric field across the resistor that forces the electrons to move from the negative battery terminal to the positive terminal. The potential difference, or voltage, across the resistor is the work done per unit charge by the battery to move the charge through the resistor.

Hope this helps

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  • $\begingroup$ so the battery is a dipole? but then how do multiple batteries create a larger potential difference. $\endgroup$
    – Jahan Zaib
    Oct 3 '20 at 4:06
  • $\begingroup$ @JahanZaib Although an electric dipole is created due to the separation of charge and a battery separates charge at its terminals, that's not the same as saying a battery is simply an electric dipole. The answers to the following post may help you: physics.stackexchange.com/questions/118540/… With regard to potential difference, the overall potential difference of batteries in series is the sum of the individual potential diffferences. $\endgroup$
    – Bob D
    Oct 3 '20 at 13:17

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