# I'm unable to wrap around the concept of antennas and more specifically microstrip antennas. How does a microstrip antenna which is bended work?

So, I had come to the agreement that to understand how antennas work, it is best to assume light/electromagnetic waves act like photons/particles in the presence of recieving antennas. And therefore a high frequency waves consume more energy and less in intensity, but more in energy(As in each photon has more punch on it). Like a torch light.

And by that, antennas are nothing but metal wires which work on photoelectric effect and the slight spike in voltage, which imitates the frequency, is amplified and then decoded as intended.

I also believe that a photon is released when a complete kink is formed at the transmission antenna, so like for every half time cycle, a wave is released.

To sum it up:

• A low frequency wave takes a huge time to be released (as half cycle-time period is long), but when it does, a huge amount of it is released for a given standard transmission voltage. And for high frequency waves, the half cycle is small, so quick transmission takes place and therefore more information can be packed.

• So, since only half a wavelength needs to be analysed, it makes sense to have quarter wave antennas which use the image of the half wave.

I just want to know the mistakes in my understanding. Especially, the part where intensity is associated with frequency. please provide better understanding.

After writing this and re-reading it, ironically, the reception and transmission part sounds more and more like wave phenomenon than photoelectric effect.

sorry for the question being all over the place.

• please note that although it is possible to prove mathematically how the quantum mechancicl entities called photons build up by the confluence of their wavecunctions the mathematics of the classical electromagnetic wave, photons are not light, i.e. classical electromagnetic radiation. To build up the mathematics for the antenna by thinking about photons is very complicated, the simple maxwell equation solutions do the job correctly , See how photons build up classica EM waves to understand the complexity : motls.blogspot.com/2011/11/… Jul 15, 2020 at 6:33

I had come to the agreement that to understand how antennas work, it is best to assume light/electromagnetic waves act like photons/particles in the presence of recieving antennas.

You're way off base here. Thinking about quantum effects won't help you understand RF antennas at all.

antennas are nothing but metal wires which work on photoelectric effect

No, totally wrong.

The photoelectric effect is when a high energy (much higher than RF, anyway) photon comes along and knocks an electron clear out of the metal altogether.

An antenna works when the incoming electromagnetic wave causes the electrons to move back and forth within the metal. There is no photoelectric effect involved.

And in fact one of the key facts about the photoelectric effect that led to our understanding of quantum mechanics was that the photoelectric effect only works with high energy photons (how high depending on what kind of metal is used), while ordinary antenna behavior can work with even very low energy photons.

I also believe that a photon is released when a complete kink is formed at the transmission antenna, so like for every half time cycle, a wave is released.

No, the timing of photon emissions (whether in RF or optical phenomena) isn't related to the phase of the wave they are part of.

Especially, the part where intensity is associated with frequency.

Intensity isn't related to frequency.

We can make a 1 W 100 kHz transmitter or a 10 kW 100 kHz transmitter.

And we can make a 1 W 10 MHz transmitter or a 10 kW 10 MHz transmitter.

And we wouldn't think at all about the energy per photon or how many photons were being emitted from the transmitter while designing any of these.

After writing this and re-reading it, ironically, the reception and transmission part sounds more and more like wave phenomenon than photoelectric effect.

Yes. RF antennas can be understood entirely on classical electromagnetics principles, with worries about quantum effects, and the photoelectric effect is not involved in their operation at all.

How does a microstrip antenna which is bended work?

None of this is specific to microstrip antennas. Whether we make a microstrip antenna, a dipole, a loop, a Yagi-Uda, or a parabolic dish, we don't need to worry about quantum effects when designing an antenna.

The simplest way to think about a transmitting antenna is a surface (or linear shape) with an electric field oscillating at fixed frequency every on it. Then add in a position dependent phase offset (possibly zero) that remains fixed, too