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I know one can simply excite a nucleon from a nucleus by radiating gamma rays on that nucleus, or knock the nucleus with neutrons or protons.

But how can we knock out a proton specially to change one element to the another? Are there any special methods for such process?

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If we are talking specifically about making a proton in a nucleus go away, one way to do it is by smacking an electron into a proton, which changes it into a neutron and a neutrino. In this manner the proton "goes away", but not by being knocked loose.

Neutrons can be knocked loose from some nuclei by striking them with high-energy protons, a process called spallation.

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  • $\begingroup$ The classic would be the 14N(n,p)14C reaction in the atmosphere. $\endgroup$ – Jon Custer Jul 13 '20 at 21:10
  • $\begingroup$ yep yep! thanks for the comment. -NN $\endgroup$ – niels nielsen Jul 13 '20 at 22:23

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