A quick explanation of how evaporation cools your coffee. Let's assume that enough time has already passed so that the coffee is at room temperature. How can it get even cooler?
Although the coffee may be at room temperature overall, not all of the molecules will be at the same temperature. Some will be hotter (have more energy) and some cooler (less energy) so the overall temperature is just an average.
The molecules that break free of the liquid and evaporate will tend to be those that have the most energy. If those molecules escape completely then the average temperature of the coffee will obviously be less than it was before (as you have taken away some of the hottest molecules).
The escaping molecules will heat up the air around the coffee making it more likely that some of the escaped heat will simply be returned back into the coffee by conduction, but using a fan (and also convection) will help remove that heat from the vicinity, so helping prevent this. Overall there is a continuous flow of heat away from the cup. The room heats up slightly as the hot molecules are added to it and the coffee cools down.
In the case of an air conditioner, the liquid that evaporates is kept in a closed system. The liquid is forced to evaporate (which cools it) and then the gas is condensed (which heats it up). The two processes are done in separate parts of the system, so that the cold part has air passed over it that cools the house or car and the hot part has air passed over it that takes the excess heat and blows it out into the environment.