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In absorption spectrum of hydrogen atom, only one electron is present in its one atom which is in ground state, so it means that all electrons can only absorb energy of photon of wavelength which lies in UV region to get to a higher energy state (by calculation it can take max wavelength $=122.55\,\mathrm{nm}$ and minimum wavelength $=91.9\,\mathrm{nm}$).Then why do we see dark lines in its absorption spectrum in visible region also, how can it absorb energy which is in visible region to get to a higher energy state i.e. how can it absorb wavelength like $656\,\mathrm{nm}$? How can the photon of this wavelength make the electron to get to a higher energy state? Please explain it intuitively (using simple mathematics)?

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Only one electron is present in its one atom which is in ground state.

It is not a correct statement as there will be some excited atoms present including those in the $n=2$ energy level.

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  • $\begingroup$ how there are atoms present in 2nd or any other energy level if the temp. is not too high then all the electrons should be in the ground state?? $\endgroup$ – happy sharma May 9 at 13:13
  • $\begingroup$ When a atom is excited and then decays it does not ahve to decay down to the ground state immediately. It could decay varies other lower state levels. $\endgroup$ – Farcher May 9 at 13:26
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The spectra one sees, either absorption or emission spectra are from aggregates of atoms, on which electromagnetic energy shines. Some of the photons in the light beam will have enough energy to excite some of the atoms to a higher n, i.e.absorption, and then there will be emission from the relaxation. See this link and this one..

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