I am studying about ferromagnetism and have wondered whether the magnetization can be aligned independently of external magnetic field direction.
As far as I know, the ferromagnetic material has no linear relationship between magnetization M and external magnetic field H, thus I guess there is no need that M doesn't have to be parallel with H.
But in many figures, when an external field is applied, the all spins are aligned parallel with that of an external field as you can see below:
So, I'm confused whether the magnetization doesn't have to follow the direction of the external field or not.
Please help me out.