# Interpretation and applications of Sokhotski–Plemelj theorem in physics

Sokhotski–Plemelj theorem states: $$\tag{1} \frac{1}{x + i0} = \text{P}\frac 1 x - i \pi\delta(x)$$ I have seen this theorem being used in QFT and in non relativistic QM (collision theory, Green functions). However all the applications I've seen so far were using (1) as simple mathematical trick.

I want to know if (1) has some kind of (simple) physical interpretation (meaning)? Such interpretation would hopefully make using (1) much more natural in particular example. Can you also give me some applications of (1) which illustrate given physical interpretation of (1) ?

Feynmann-Dyson expansion (i.e., using Feynman diagrams) routinely involves calculating the integrals of factors like $$\prod_\alpha\frac{1}{x - x_\alpha +i0^+}\prod_\beta\frac{1}{x - x_\beta +i0^-}.$$ The sign of the imaginary factor typically corresponds to the retarded or advanced nature of the (part of the) Green's function. I would be however cautious to attribute specific physical meaning to such a basic mathematical formula - it is akin attributing physical meaning to addition or multiplication - it obviously depends on the context.