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If true, does it assume the link between the sending and receiving sides or servers acting on their behalf to be fully optical fiber physical layer or what practical approach is that heading towards?

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Do you mean quantum key distribution(QKD)? If so, Then its security is guaranteed by quantum mechanics. As you can see, currently all security proof is based on quantum entanglement.

However, not all QKD protocols are unconditionally secure, since proofs of some protocols require the devices need to be trustable. Yet there are some protocols that are unconditionally secure.

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  • $\begingroup$ Does that mean the entangled particle has to be transported to the other side? $\endgroup$
    – Amr Berag
    Apr 22 '20 at 15:34
  • $\begingroup$ In some protocols, entangled particles has to be, like DI qkd and MDI qkd. In some protocols, they're not, because a photon whose information only known to sender emitted from a black box can be equivalent to one particle in two-particle entanglement $\endgroup$
    – xiang sun
    Apr 23 '20 at 8:42

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