So fiber optic is used top transfer information around the world, including this post, between my computer and the SE server, wherever that is. But as I read, that info is transmitted through light pulses, on/off indicating 1/0 in terms of bits. I understand how we can transmit a simple message from source to destination (e.g. morse from lighthouse to ship)
But electronic information is complex and is routed through common pathways (fiber optic). Therefore, such communication must include metadata. For instance, this post is sent to SE by me. But only this post and not the other thing I am doing in another tab of my browser. Thus, there is the information itself as well as the metadata about it (where, to whom, beginning/end, date, etc). How can simple light pulses transmit both data and metadata?
Transmission of info, afaik, is done through some translation mechanism, converting complex info into binary data. But how is metadata processes? How does the converter know when a piece of info begins and ends and where to send it?