What property of QFT allows a particle to alter the flow of time?
I'll paraphrase :
"What property of QFT allows a proton to alter the flow of time?"
or any particle or composite of particles ? In the mainstream model of physics, all matter is composed of standard model particles in an infinity of combinations.
The LHC will not find a graviton, because the couplings are such that in the time frame the experiments run there is an infinitesimally small probability to see with the LHC detectors the interactions of a graviton, but let us suppose it exists.
Let us suppose that the effective field theories using gravitons for cosmological models prove right.
The graviton then will be one more particle in the table of the future standard model of particle physics.
Now take General Relativity , where the energy momentum tensor distorts space time according to Einstein's equations.
There is no dependence of this equation on quantum field theory, evidently.
The proton, described in the framework of genera relatity will distort space according to its energy-momentum four vector . Quantum field theory has no mathematical meaning in the general relativity equations, they are two different mathematical models of how nature behaves. There is on going research to reconcile the two frameworks by quantizing gravity, but this does not change the answer of space time distortions which are a general relativity effect: it is the fourvectors of particles that distort space time.
You seem to think that there is something special about the graviton, but , if it exists it will also have a fourvector and will distort space time according to the Einstein equations. There is nothing special to gauge bosons that general relativity can distinguish, no "property" of QFT affects space time variables.
How is it possible for a graviton to drag time frames and dilate time?
By its four vector.
Now string theories are theories at present that can model general relativity and quantum mechanical entities , and quantum field theory is expressed in these models, thus unifying mathematically the general relativity framework, and the quantum mechanical framework, but there is no definite theory that can be predictive of data. It may be that LHC can help there by finding new particles that could pick up a theory that unifies everything, but we are not there yet.