Such an array of capacitors is not physically possible. The field travels from one capacitor to the next so that effectively you get an opposite polarized capacitor in between every capacitor of your array.
Even if you completely insulate the capacitor, for instance by placing it into a Faraday cage, you will still create two parasitic capacitors between the walls of the cage and the inner capacitor. Those make the whole contraption totally useless.
There is a small trick that is done in a class of electrostatic accelerators called "tandem". You have a structure like this:
| | |
^ ground ^ V ^ ground
You start with a negative ion and accelerate it through the first half up to the $e$V energy, then you strip away the electrons with a thin foil so that you get a positive ion which doubles its energy through the second half.
And, before you ask: yes, the cycle could be repeated endlessly, however, while stripping away electrons from a negative ion is quite straightforward, there is no (known) efficient way to realize the opposite process as the ion is accelerated to higher and higher energies.