Astrophysicists believe that dark energy exists and makes up ~70% of the universe's energy content. What is the evidence that dark energy exists? Wikipedia gives five lines of evidence:
Supernovae. A specific type of supernovae (type 1A) are supposed to be standard candles - that is, their luminosity is known. In turn this lets us measure distance to faraway galaxies, check how fast those galaxies are receding from us, and check if that recession speed is increasing over time.
CMB. Data from the Cosmic Microwave Background indicates the universe is approximately flat. Visible matter + dark matter can account for ~30% of the energy content required to make the universe flat, leaving ~70% for something else - dark energy.
BAO. Baryon acoustic oscillations act as a "standard ruler" that lets us measure how the Hubble constant varies with redshift (i.e. time), and see if the recession speed is increasing with time.
Late-time ISW. ISW stands for integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect. The idea is that, usually, a photon that enters a potential well gains energy as it falls in and loses energy as it emerges, and gain/loss exactly cancel. If a universe is expanding in accelerated fashion, then this is untrue; the potential wells / hills are smoothed out and there is a permanent shift in the photon's energy and therefore temperature. If we see a correlation between hot and cold spots on the CMB and the locations of superclusters and voids, then it's a sign of accelerated expansion.
Galaxy evolution. This uses (known) evolution of early-type galaxies as a standard clock. Once we know how long it takes for a galaxy to evolve from one state to another, as well as their redshifts, we can reconstruct how the Hubble constant varies over time, and see if the recession speed is increasing with time.
- Did I understand any of these five methods wrong?
- Are there any other lines of evidence for the existence of dark energy?