A point in static fluid has pressure of $\rho$ * g * h, where $\rho$ is the constant density throughout the fluid body, g the gravitational accelaration, and h is the height of the fluid column above that point.
What I can't understand is how this increase in pressure is not accompanied (or caused) by matching increase in density or temperature.
In my understanding, whether it's liquid or gas, pressure basically is the aggregate effect of randomly moving particles exerting force on their surroundings, hence it is connected to the translational kinetic energy of the particles and the frequency of their contact with the surroundings. So it seems any increase in pressure should mean either (1) decrease in volume (or increase in density) or (2) increase in temperature (increased momentum of particles). Apparently this is incorrect as no article on the internet or textbooks I could find suggest this.
What am I getting wrong? How does weight of a fluid column cause pressure rise in microscopic point of view? By making particles faster? Then how come the temperature remains unaffected?