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If we have a [positively] charged sphere like this:

enter image description here

do the charges on the one side stop the effects of the electric field of the charges on the other sides of the surface?

In other words, is every field line represented in the image generated by a single charge or amount of charge, or is rather the sum of the contributions of all the charges on the conductor?

Moreover, does a charge effectively "block" the electric field generated by another charge? For example here, does the third charge feel the presence of the first even if there is another element in the middle?

enter image description here

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Do the charges on the one side stop the effects of the electric field of the charges on the other sides of the surface?

Actually, if the charge density is uniform, we consider the whole charge concentrated in the center of the sphere, in such a way that all the outward field lines were created by a single electric charge carrier in the center of the sphere.

Moreover, does a charge effectively "block" the electric field generated by another charge? For example here, does the third charge feel the presence of the first even if there is another element in the middle?

The electric field is a vector. In the spherical symmetric cases -- the one you had in the image -- we can calculate the electric field by $\bf{E} = \frac{kq}{r^{2}}\hat r$ where $\bf E$ is the magnitude of the electric field, $k$ is the Coulomb constant, $q$ is the charge of the generator of the electric field and $r$ is the distance between the generator of the electric field and a determined point in space. Obs.: [r] = meters, and [q] = coulombs, in the I.S.

You can do the calculations of your example by yourself, but what matters is that you can create a situation of three particles and, depending on the values of the $q$ and $r$, the second particle be submitted to a null net electric field, since there will be a vector sum of opposite vectors.

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    $\begingroup$ Thanks for the answer! $\endgroup$ – Shootforthemoon Jan 8 at 22:14
  • $\begingroup$ My pleasure! I am in your service. $\endgroup$ – Victor Lins Jan 8 at 22:16
  • $\begingroup$ I'd like to dicuss a few things about Gauss's law. If u want, can we start a chat? $\endgroup$ – Shootforthemoon Jan 9 at 16:57
  • $\begingroup$ Of course, we can! $\endgroup$ – Victor Lins Jan 9 at 17:11
  • $\begingroup$ I am not sure how we can begin it, but if there is such a thing as an invite, please send me. $\endgroup$ – Victor Lins Jan 9 at 17:14
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Check again your definition of electric field. The electric field, or in general any field is defined in every point of space (actually in every point of the "Euclidean space + time" plane). There can be cases in which the electric field is zero, but it doesn't mean that it is "blocked" by some charge.

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    $\begingroup$ Thanks for the answer! $\endgroup$ – Shootforthemoon Jan 8 at 22:14

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