# What are some examples of transverse waves which are not electromagnetic in nature? [closed]

Electromagnetic waves are transverse in nature.What are some other kind of non electromagnetic waves which are also transverse in nature?

• D'Alembert used the vibrating string (transverse) to 'discover' the wave equation--the "D'Alembertian". He also used it to find its solution--"D'Alembert's Formula". – user45664 Dec 13 '19 at 18:56
• Waves of the earthquakes. More clearly, waves in solids can be both transversal and longitudinal. They might have different propagation speed and die-down time constant. – peterh - Reinstate Monica Dec 14 '19 at 14:30

A violin string. Vibrating strings are typically the first time that physics students encounter waves. The (one-dimensional) wave equation emerges naturally from considering the acceleration of a small string segment due to its tension and curvature in the limit of small transverse displacement.

Transverse waves happen in elastic solids. The oscillations are made as the solid atoms/molecules are displaced away from their relaxed position, in directions perpendicular to the propagation of the wave. This sort of wave is also called shear waves, secondary waves or S-waves, esp. in seismology. The velocity of a shear wave is controlled by the shear modulus ($$G$$) as follows:

$$v_s=\sqrt{\frac{G}{\rho}}\space,$$

where $$\rho$$ is the density of the solid.

In addition to a string or a whip, transverse waves exist on a membrane of a drum, in elastic solids (shear waves, such as secondary or S-waves in seismology), waves on the surface of a liquid (e.g. a lake), waves on the surface of an inflated balloon (e.g. a soap bubble). Some of transverse waves can coexist with longitudinal waves. E.g., both types can propagate at the same time in elastic solids. Gravitational waves are also transverse.

Transvese wave