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Does the space shuttle get heated up while moving at high speed in space? If yes, we all know that moving surface gets heated up only when it collides with air particles but space is vacuum, then what is the obstruction that increases the temperature of the space shuttle?

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    $\begingroup$ Objects can get heated up by more than just colliding with air particles. Are you specifically asking about heating from drag, or do you want to know about all the ways the space shuttle heats up? $\endgroup$ – JMac Nov 27 '19 at 16:06
  • $\begingroup$ The temperature of the side of ISS facing the solar radiation is roughly $250\;^{o}C$ - the dark side is roughly $-250\;^{o}C$. The ISS rotates about it's center of mass once every orbit. $\endgroup$ – Cinaed Simson Nov 27 '19 at 19:54
  • $\begingroup$ There are no natural vacuums - matter will expand into the vacuum. $\endgroup$ – Cinaed Simson Nov 27 '19 at 20:15
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There are so few gas molecules in (orbital) space that the space shuttle was not frictionally heated by them. Instead, the shuttle was heated primarily by the sun's rays.

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Based on published values for hydrogen density in interstellar space one can estimate the heating on the leading surface of a ship moving at about 0.2 c to be several watts per square meter. (With radiators on other suraces, that might be collected and used to power devices within the ship.) (The drag forces wold still be quite small.)

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