The abundance mixture found in the Sun and ancient meteorites does not match the abundance mixture expected from the evolution and ultimate destruction of any star. That is unsurprising, because the solar system material was contributed to by the millions (or even a billion) stars that lived and died in our Galaxy before the Sun was born. e.g. How many times has the matter in our solar system been recycled from previous stars? and https://astronomy.stackexchange.com/questions/16311
There is therefore no chance of identifying the remnant of a progenitor, because there wasn't one.
Some more general comments:
Your statement about uranium is quite correct - most if not all of that will have been created in violent explosions, like supernovae and neutron star collisions. The remnants are black holes and neutron stars. They are still out there somewhere, though may have been ejected from the Galaxy.
Other heavy elements like barium, strontium and a host of others, were likely created by the s-process, and expelled in the winds of stars that never exploded and which ended up as white dwarfs. Such white dwarfs just continue to cool down. The coldest in the Galaxy have reached 3000K and can still be found. Nothing else will happen to them (if protons are stable, or unless they accrete more mass).
Much of the nickel and iron were created from the explosions of white dwarfs that became too massive by accreting material from companions. These "Type Ia supernova" explosions destroy the white dwarf, leaving no remnant at all.
All this stellar detritus is injected into the interstellar medium and then mixed up by relative motions within the Galaxy, tidal forces and turbulence that is stirred up by the explosions mentioned above.