Let’s consider a perfect electric conductor which is connecting the terminals of an ideal voltage source (it is a short circuit in practice). What happens from an electromagnetic point of view?
We know that for a perfect electric conductor:
1) The electric field inside the material is 0
2) The electric field on its surface is purely orthogonal
If I understood correctly, these properties are always true, also in absence of equilibrium, since the conductor is ideal.
The property 2) implies that the voltage across the conductor's surface is 0. But there is a voltage source applied on it: which is the solution?
Moreover, voltage source means electric field between the two terminals: is this electric field inside the conductor or on its surface?