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I happened to encounter an interesting phenomenon in candle wax. As shown in the video, small dust near the fire seem to move back and forth, as if there is some kind of repulsive and attractive force.

What is the cause of this motion?

Thanks.

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It looks to be a classic example of a convection current in the candle wax. Ideally, the wax near the flame heats up dramatically and rises, reaches the surface and has nowhere to go, and so moves away from the hot candle. Then it cools down and sinks. The cycle repeats.

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