I mean male and female voices are made up of different frequency range but when we produce same word suppose 'cake', we understand it as same.

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    $\begingroup$ It's complicated, but start here: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Formant $\endgroup$ – PM 2Ring Sep 8 at 18:54
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    $\begingroup$ I concur with PM 2Ring; the wikipedia article about Formants is a good starting point. The way that the vocal tract modifies the sound that is produced is by and large independent of the fundamental frequency of the sound produced. To emphasize this: in the case of whispering the sound that is produced at the location of the vocal folds is pretty close to white noise. The vocal tract modifies that white noise. As we know, well articulated whispered speech is as intelligible as normal speech. $\endgroup$ – Cleonis Sep 8 at 19:47

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