# What happens to the extra energy when the photon hits an electron? (+ Compton's Effect)

I understand that the electron needs a specific quantized amount of energy in order to be excited to another state. For example, hydrogen requires $$10.2\ \mathrm{eV}$$ for its electron to jump from $$n=1$$ to $$n=2$$.

Scenario 1:
What happens if the photon that it has collided with has an energy above $$10.2\ \mathrm{eV}$$, let's say $$10.3\ \mathrm{eV}$$? Would the electron still jump from $$n=1$$ to $$n=2$$, but the remaining $$0.1\ \mathrm{eV}$$ be kept within the photon? If so, would Compton's effect occur where the photon is scattered in another direction with a different frequency?

Scenario 2:
What happens if the light is emitting photons with energy of $$13\ \mathrm{eV}$$? Would it be possible for the electrons to be absorbing different amounts of energy? i.e some electrons absorb energy to be excited to $$n=3$$ or some to $$n=2$$? I would assume that this is the case since the emission spectra plays on this idea by having different types of “light” created with the electrons emitting different frequencies of light.

I understand that similar questions have been posted on this site, but I do not understand the wordings of some of them.

• I have not studied this very much but I do recall an article somewhere a few years ago. The idea was that protons emit energy waves from the nucleus radiating outward spherically. When the electrons absorb energy and rise to higher level they become unstable but are more stable in the valleys or trough of the radiating energy wave. I have always assumed the energy levels of the valence electrons rise and fall together and settle into these troughs. I also assumed the small difference of energy would either radiate away or settle back into the electrons again. Sep 7, 2019 at 14:56
• @BillAlsept Could you please provide a further explanation on this? I also thought that the small difference in energy would radiate away due to Compton's effect. Sep 8, 2019 at 2:48