In physics, one doesn't formally recognize or make use of the categorizations of the kinds of reasoning. In fact, to echo the sentiments expressed by Steven Weinberg in "Dreams of the Final Theory, Chapter VII", I would say that it is the job of physics to actually find out as to what kinds of reasoning are conducive to discovering the truth and not the other way around, i.e., we cannot presuppose what would yield the truth. However, one can try to descriptively analyze what kinds of reasoning have been employed in physics so far.
The crude basis of the scientific method can be expressed as follows. $1.$ Noting the empirical data, $2.$ Trying to find the simplest model that can explain the observed data, $3.$ Making new predictions, and, finally, $4. $ The validity of the exercise comes from testing (at least a subset of) these predictions against the experiments.
The second step resembles deductive reasoning but it is not really deductive reasoning because there is never a mathematical way to deduce a unique model from a given set of observations. So, model building is really more like abductive reasoning. Making new predictions certainly involves both deductive reasoning and inductive reasoning. For example, the mathematical steps involved include deductive reasoning whereas the act of making physical predictions about the real world is inductive. There is also some element of reasoning by analogy in the form of symmetry arguments that go into the theoretical process as well as in the act of expecting that if the same experiment is repeated then it would produce the same result. However, this is an oversimplified version of the scientific process. Of course, the theoretical process often involves dealing with multiple models which contradict each other in extreme cases where they overlap, i.e., they create paradoxes. The recognition/formulation of a paradox often involves a reductio ad absurdum argument.
It seems far fetched to suggest that the whole of the scientific method is only some combination of different modes of reasoning. Rather, it seems more in the spirit of the scientific method to expect that the scientific method will teach us valid modes of reasoning.