This question relates to the physicality of force exchange. I'm comfortable with QM as far as it relates to chemistry, (BO approximation, Hartree-Fock method, most particle interactions basics, etc) but am interested in understanding the physical nature of force exchange. Let's take for example, intermolecular long-range electrostatic interactions (coulomb force).
In Scenario 1, let's say we have a point-like molecule/atom (let's not integrate please) with a formal charge of +1, called P1. It is at a fixed distance from another like object, P2.
In Scenario 2, we have P1 at the same fixed distance from another point-like that has a formal charge of -1, called N1.
The attractive force and repulsive force between the interactions in Scenario 1 and 2 are the same, just the sign is flipped in all thermodynamic or energetic descriptions of the relationship.
To my knowledge, force carriers mediate these interactions. So my question is, how does that work, physically? To put it simply, if I pull or push on a solid rod, that to me makes intuitive sense as to its symmetry. How does force exchange work physically at the subatomic level to mediate "pull" and "push" forces to be symmetrical? Can someone provide an example of how force carriers would mediate Scenario 1 and 2?