Astronauts in spacecraft, they have to circle the earth many times a day, do they also have the illusion of the moon? I don't think they have, because according to the theory, the illusion of the moon is the result of the influence of buildings on the ground and mountains. In space, although it can be compared with the earth, there is no comparison between buildings and mountains.
The moon looks bigger when it is near the horizon than when it is higher in the sky. Many observers also report that the horizon moon appears to be closer than the zenith moon. Of course, the moon is of constant size and distance from the Earth, so, these appearences are illusory. Yet there is little agreement among perceptual psychologists about the cause of the illusion.
Coming back to your question, some astronauts reported a corresponding " earth illusion" the rising earth appearing larger than the zenith earth.
So, For reasons not fully understood by astronomers or psychologists, low-hanging moons look unnaturally large when they beam through trees, building or other foreground objects. In my opinion, the astronauts on the ISS would not be able to see the moon illusion. Rather, they would be able to see the "earth" illusion.
Sources: Misconceptions about the moon - NASA