I have explored many videos, postings, and lectures regarding the interaction of electricity, magnetism, and motion, including Fleming's Right Hand Rule and Left Hand Rule. While the explanations of these rules explain the relationships of the various directions, they leave out the foundation of the directions themselves. The direction of motion is quite obvious. But the foundations of electric and magnetic field directions is not given. These must have conventions but these conventions seem to be avoided or assumed to be generally known. Maybe this is something that I just missed in life. Eventually, I did find that the convention for the direction of a magnetic field is from north (N) to south (S).

I have been unable to find this information about an electric current. What I do find is the direction of a positive charge and the direction of a negative charge. Looking more, I find charts and pictures showing vector directions between plus and minus (such as on a battery, maybe) in both directions, further deepening the confusion.

One thing I want to know is the meaning of the direction of current flow. Another thing I want to know is which of the Hand Rules is correct?

I am seeking this information to understand the possible effects latitudinal and vertical motion through Earth's magnetic field will have on things such as airplanes, rockets, and clouds. Which direction will charges tend to be applied, such on a cloud or rocket, independent of charges in the atmosphere.


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