A common grade school experiment is to compare how hot different materials get in direct sunlight. See examples here, here and here for example. The premise is generally two identical objects of different colors are compared with respect to how much heat they absorb, e.g. by heating a glass of water or melting ice.
To what extent does color contribute to the results of these experiments? Anecdotally, it seems like black things heat more than white things, colored things land somewhere in the middle.
I'm looking for a formula or some quantitative data about the impact of color on heat absorption. It seems surprisingly difficult to find explanations or information, despite it being a commonly held view. Trying to keep as close to the same material as possible, how much hotter will a black thing be than a white thing when sitting under the same sunlight?
Specifically I'm looking to understand how much color contributes to heat absorption compared to other considerations. E.g. is a material being black the primary determinant of absorption (black paint and black fabric), or are other facets (shiny vs. matte) bigger contributors.