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(Some context : I am a first year engineering student and i have conceptual doubts in Compton and photoelectric effect. I have read a book "Concepts of modern physics"-Arthur Beiser and talked to my professor in hopes of clearing my doubts. Neither has succeeded in explaining the interaction between a photon and an electron adequately. My question may seem very fundamental or even vague and I'm sorry for that)

1)What happens to the electron in Compton effect?

Case 1: An X-ray photon hits an electron in the valence shell of the atom.Due to an interaction unknown to me, the photon loses some energy and scatters.In this case the X-ray has a high enough energy that we can treat the valence electron as a free electron. What happens to the electron in this case?Does it excite to a higher energy state or does it stay in its orbit?Does it completely separate from the atom and move around in the bulk of the metal or does it even escape the metal surface?

Case 2: A photon from the visible spectrum hits a valence/'loosely bound' electron

Case 3:An X-ray photon hits an inner electron(tightly bound to nucleus)

Case 4:A photon of the visible spectrum strikes an inner electron.

2)In what cases does photoelectric effect occur instead of Compton Scattering?

I am confused as to what happens because google searches reveal other types of scattering that I haven't even heard of.I am merely starting out with quantum physics so any lack of clarity in my question is regretted,Please tell me how I can clarify myself and I shall try to do so.

3)Another question i have is what happens if the photon's energy does or does not correspond to the energy gap between any two orbits?And what happens if an excess amount of energy is supplied,greater than the ionization energy/work function(whichever is relevant)

I know that it is a lot to read and answer,so even the tiniest help is deeply appreciated :)

Any references to any books or sources, that explain the physical mechanism that is occurring here,are also welcome

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