How does an air conditioner work? A thermodynamics textbook discusses this topic in a fairly abstract way (notes):
A refrigerator or heat pump is a device which, with work input, moves thermal energy from cold regions to hot regions. Without the work input, this could not be achieved, as it would violate Clausius' statement of the Second Law of Thermodynamics.
The Second Law:
Heat cannot, of itself, pass from a colder to a hotter body.
It is impossible for any system to operate in a thermodynamic cycle and deliver a net amount of work to its surroundings while receiving an energy transfer by heat from a single thermal reservoir.
The notes don't really say how such a heat pump is implemented, just theoretical limits on the efficiency. So there's a separate question on how such a refrigeration cycle can be implemented. Wikipedia only gives one (possibly inaccurate) image:
This one is vapor compression refrigeration. I am asking how a typical household summer-time air conditioner works. There's an evaporator, a condenser, an expansion, and a compressor. Then I'd like to know a bit how those components function.