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I'm asking for a list of experiments, machinery, technology and techniques. The only measuring device I really know of is the Stern-Gerlach contraption. Google hasn't been helpful (it only gives me buzzwordy articles).

I'm an undergrad and all my work in QM mostly neglects what we actually do in labs, and what information is actually available to us, rather than part of the theoretical framework.

What measuring devices do physicists have available to them? Can we measure individual particles' positions? How about their velocities (obviously in different experiments)? What about multiple particles at the same time? Are experiments mostly about macro-scale statistical mechanics, or do we actually look at distinct particles? I know a lot of experiments measure energy, but not much about how, or why that's particularly valuable. What other features of systems can we measure?

I'm particularly interested in methods of wavefunction "collapse" rather than necessarily readable results (don't care much about the collapsed eigenvalue, although all the better if such information is provided). I'm thinking about the design of quantum systems and I'd like references and existing technology to work with.

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closed as too broad by Aaron Stevens, Cosmas Zachos, John Rennie, Jon Custer, tpg2114 Jul 19 at 12:33

Please edit the question to limit it to a specific problem with enough detail to identify an adequate answer. Avoid asking multiple distinct questions at once. See the How to Ask page for help clarifying this question. If this question can be reworded to fit the rules in the help center, please edit the question.

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Subatomic particles are smaller than atoms, those can be categorized into two types: elementary and composite particles. Also, these can be divided into charged and neutral particles. So in order to study particle characteristics such as energy, momentum, mass, spin, etc. it has to interact. The way of interaction is different for neutral and charged particles with a particular material. Then this can be measured or detected by a detector.

You have a list of questions, I may give some hints.

(1) At the end of the day, we measure only current and voltage in any experiment as far as I know. (2) Physicists have a wide range of devices to study the behaviors. you may google it. (3) Yes, individual particle position can be measured. Particle positions can be measured by the silicon vertex detector. Which is basically a collection of PN junction diodes. (4) Velocity or momentum also can be measured by a gas chamber in the presence of a magnetic field. (5) Nowadays the resolution of the instruments has much improved. We can actually go up to a few micrometers for position measurement, an order of picoseconds for time measurement, etc. So the microscopic particles can be studied.

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Particle detectors typically detect the by-products after a sub-atomic particle interacts with other matter. So they are actually detecting ions or photons of various energies and wavelengths. For short-lived particles the detection may be even more indirect - what is detected is the by-products after the decay products of the original particle interact with other matter. The properties of the original particle can then be inferred from the properties of these by-products.

Gathering enough data to distinguish between true signals and the coincidental alignment of unrelated events is what makes the detection of rare or rarely interacting particles so difficult and time consuming.

Wikipedia has a summary of particle detector types here and a description of combination or "hermetic" detectors here.

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